Often referred to as a subarachnoid haemorrhage, haemorrhages are a type of stroke caused by bleeding on the brains surface.
The main symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage include a blinding headache, nausea and vomiting, a stiff/painful neck, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness and convulsions. The symptoms of a haemorrhage are similar to that of an ischaemic stroke, and also include slurred speech and muscle weakness.
Haemorrhages are most often caused by the bursting of a weakened blood vessel in the brain, known as a brain aneurysm. There are certain risk factors associated with haemorrhages that are thought to promote the formation of aneurysms. These include smoking, high blood pressure, excessive alcohol intake, a family history of aneurysms, and infections impacting the brain.
Medication and surgery are the primary treatment options for a haemorrhage. Medication can be given to prevent a secondary ischaemic attack, common post-haemorrhage and can lead to brain damage, such as Nimodipine. Other medications may include pain relief, anticonvulsants and anti-emetics. Surgery options include neurological clipping and endovascular coiling: both aiming to repair the ruptured vessel and prevent another haemorrhage.