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Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy is characterised by damage to nerves in the extremities of the body, outside of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy vary depending on the types of nerves damaged, resulting in disruption of the nerves normal activity. Damage may occur to sensory neurones, motor neurones, autonomic […]

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Dementia

Dementia is a syndrome (group of related symptoms) comparable with a continuous decline of the brain and its capabilities (including memory loss, thought speed, language and judgement etc.). Symptoms The early symptoms of Dementia are often mild and unnoticeable. Over time, these symptoms become more severe. As some may have more than one dementia-related condition, […]

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Headaches/ Migraines

There are many different types of headaches, including migraines, each with different causes and symptoms. Migraines are usually present as a more intense form of headache, which can be categorised into migraines with aura, without aura and aura without headache. Symptoms Severe throbbing is usually felt in only one side of the head, with additional […]

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Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia impacts the trigeminal nerve that runs from the face to the brain, and is associated with a sharp, severe and sudden pain in the face. Symptoms Symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia primarily include the sudden onset of an excruciating shooting pain in the face, which may be triggered by certain actions and can last […]

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Aneurysm

Blood vessel walls may become weakened and begin to form a swelling or bulge, know as an aneurysm. Symptoms Aneurysms less commonly cause symptoms, unless they rupture and give rise to a haemorrhage. However, symptoms may include blurred vision, pain behind the eye, slurred speech, short-term memory problems, problems with balance, headaches, and numbness on […]

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Haemorrhage

Often referred to as a subarachnoid haemorrhage, haemorrhages are a type of stroke caused by bleeding on the brains surface. Symptoms The main symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage include a blinding headache, nausea and vomiting, a stiff/painful neck, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness and convulsions. The symptoms of a haemorrhage are […]

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Vertigo/ Dizziness

Vertigo is usually a symptom rather than a condition itself, with the terms vertigo and dizziness often being used interchangeably. Symptoms The sensation associated with vertigo is usually a spinning environment. A person experiencing vertigo may feel dizzy, nauseous, and unbalanced, which may cause difficulty walking. Causes Vertigo can be categorised into peripheral vertigo and […]

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Tourette Syndrome

A neurological disorder characterised by involuntary noises and movements known as tics. Symptoms Tics are the primary symptom of Tourette’s syndrome, but in order for them to be classified as Tourette’s syndrome, they must be present for at least a year and include a vocal tic. Tics can be categorised into vocal, physical, simple and […]

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Stroke

A stroke occurs when part of the blood supply to the brain is cut off, starving the region it supplies of oxygen. Symptoms The classic symptoms of a stroke include dropping of the face on one side, including the eye and/or mouth, inability of the individual to lift both arms and hold them in position, […]

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Spinal Injury

Spinal cord injury is any injury resulting in damage to the spinal cord and its associated nerves. Symptoms Spinal cord injury is primarily associated with loss of feeling and movement below the site of injury. Spinal cord injuries can result in paralysis.  Other symptoms include loss of control over the bladder and bowels, sexual and […]

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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is excess fluid on the brain. This applies pressure to the brain that can cause damage. Symptoms Symptoms include headaches, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, neck pain, changes in mental function, difficulty walking, and urinary and bowel incontinence. Causes The causes of hydrocephalus are not entirely known. It has been suggested that congenital (patients […]

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Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida is a neural tube defect resulting in the incomplete formation of the spine during embryonic development. Symptoms Spina Bifida can result in numerous different symptoms that can be categorised into mobility problems, bladder and bowel problems, and hydrocephalus (excess fluid on the brain). Causes The exact cause has not been identified, but a […]

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Huntington’s Disease

An inherited disorder characterised by the progressive deterioration of brain cells, leading to movement, behavioural and cognitive problems. Symptoms Symptoms of Huntington’s disease vary between individuals and usually begin between the ages of 35 and 55 years. These include uncontrollable movement problems such as jerking, behavioural changes, psychiatric problems such as depression, communication problems, and […]

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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a rare disorder in which an increased number of brain cells become damaged over time. There are as few as 4,000 cases of PSP in the UK, with most occurring in people over 60 years of age. Symptoms Progressive Supranuclear Palsy is often misdiagnosed due to the similarity of its […]

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Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is the progressive degeneration of the nervous system, including particular regions of the brain. Symptoms The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include a tremor in the arm or hands, slowness of movements, and muscle rigidity. Other symptoms include balance problems, nerve problems, dizziness, and difficulties swallowing, amongst others. Causes Parkinson’s disease is characterised […]

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Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophies are a group of inherited genetic disorders resulting in progressive muscle weakening. Symptoms Symptoms of muscular dystrophies present as muscle weakness that initially occurs in a specific group of muscles before becoming more widespread, and may eventually progress to impact the muscles of the heart and lungs, which can be life threatening. Symptoms […]

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Demyelinating Diseases

Any disease that results in the breakdown of the myelin sheath, which is the protective covering surrounding the nerve cells in the central nervous system. This impairs the electrical conductance of nerve signals and can result in neurological disorders. The most common demyelinating disease is Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Symptoms The symptoms of demyelinating diseases vary […]

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Motor Neurone Disease

Motor neurone disease is a rare condition that progressively damages parts of the nervous system. This leads to muscle weakness, often with visible wasting. Symptoms Symptoms of motor neurone disease typically follow a pattern that involves three stages: the initial, advanced and end stage. Initial symptoms can be grouped into limb-onset disease, bulbar-onset disease, and respiratory-onset […]

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated seizures. Symptoms The primary symptoms of epilepsy are repeated seizures. There are many different types of seizure, depending on the area of the brain affected. Causes In just over 50% of epilepsy cases, a cause cannot be found. However, if the cause of epilepsy is […]

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Brain Tumours

A brain tumour is a proliferation of brain cells that multiply in an uncommon, uncontrollable way. It can be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Symptoms Common symptoms of brain tumours can include severe or persistent headaches, seizures, persistent nausea or vomiting, mental or behavioural changes (e.g. memory problems or personality changes), and progressive weakness or […]

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Acquired Brain Injury

An Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is an injury caused to the brain post-birth by a traumatic or non-traumatic event. Symptoms Acquired Brain Injury can affect memory and thought processes, physical ability, speech/language, swallowing, physical ability, psychological functioning and/or behaviour. Causes There are multiple possible causes, including; a fall, a road accident, an infection, tumour or […]

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